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What Are The Chemical Properties Of Iron ?
There are various processes by which iron can be obtained. Pure iron can be obtained by plunging ferric oxide at a temperature of one thousand degrees Celsius with hydrogen. The same can be obtained by means of an electric process called electrolysis.
Electrolysis of a solution, known as Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate, provides a product of which vacuum melting is done to obtain iron. Pure iron can also be obtained by thermally decomposing iron pentacarbonyl at a temperature of two hundred to two hundred fifty degrees Celsius, which gets deposited as fine powder.
Iron in its purest form is a soft, grayish-white metal, which melts on a temperature of 1528o C and boils at 2735o C. The common properties of pure iron are found to be excellent conductor of electricity, heat; malleable, ductile and magnetic. The magnetic properties of iron are not affected even at extremely high temperatures.
There are 3 allotropic forms of pure iron which are well-known as alpha, gamma and delta iron respectively. The properties of these categories of iron differ in hardness, crystal structure, thermal stability, and magnetic properties with the capability to melt carbon. Alpha iron is the major component in wrought iron and becomes unstable at temperatures above 768o Celsius. Alpha iron has strong magnetic properties and is very soft. Wrought iron contains maximum of 0.25 percent of carbon and is commercial iron’s purest form. The properties of Gamma iron are found to be stable between temperature range 906o C to 1404o C and it is hard and non-magnetic. It is quite different from Alpha iron.
Delta iron gets unstable at temperatures above 1400o Celsius and is nonmagnetic. At normal temperatures pure iron does not gets affected by water and air, but the commercial iron gets affected by water and damp air. Rusting of iron is the common problem with commercial iron. When pure iron is heated it gives off gases like carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen.
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